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Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
An endoscopic procedure, aimed to remove a section of the most superficial layer of the bowel (mucosa) - variable techniques are employed. The general goal of this procedure is to completely remove or resect tissue that is abnormal e.g. adenomatous or dysplastic.

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatogram
(ERCP) a combined endoscopic and radiologic procedure, where the Ampulla of Vater (confluence of the ducts from the biliary system and pancreatic system merge, to enter into the small bowel in the duodenum) is cannulated with a catheter, and images are depicted by fluoroscopy. The purpose of this examination may be for diagnosis (to understand the biliary or pancreatic duct anatomy) and more commonly for the purpose of intervention, to remove a stone, place a stent or take biopsies.

endoscopic ultrasound
An advanced therapeutic technique where endoscopy and ultrasound are combined, with an ultrasound device housed within an endoscope, allowing for sonographic characterization of structures accessible intra-luminally (within the GI tract). Target organs of interest include the esophagus (eg. for staging esophageal tumors), pancreas (characterizing and potentially sampling pancreatic cysts and tumors), the biliary tree (to identify strictures, tumors or the presence/absence of gall stones), and the rectum (characterize rectal tumors).

Endoscopy (pronounced /ɛnˈdɒskəpi/) means looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope (pronounced /ˈɛndəskoʊp/), an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line of-sight observation is not feasible.

The underlying cause of disease or abnormality

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